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厂家揭示为什么列管式冷凝器会结垢?解决方法

2019-01-10 12:47:23 无锡科达脚手架厂 阅读

列管式冷凝器在使用过程中,由于其制冷面积大,所以也极易在制冷表面形成沉积物堆积而发生结垢现象,使表面的热阻升高,影响了制冷的速度。目前很多化工生产企业都是由于列管式冷凝器在使用中存在结垢问题,而影响了使用效果,从而造成经济上的损失。那为什么列管式冷凝器会结垢呢?列管冷凝器其主要是以水为其载体,水作为冷凝器的流体,其性质不仅指水本身的性质,也包括水中夹带着的各种物质。所以在冷凝过程中,其内所含有的离子或是某些盐类会随若温度的变化而发生结晶,这些结晶会附着在列管冷凝器的表面,形成水垢,在水垢刚形成阶段,其还会较为松软,但随着时间的推移、制冷效果的恶化,则会使水垢中的结晶开始失去,垢层开始变硬,并在表面形成一层牢固的硬壳。

During the use of tubular condenser, because of its large refrigeration area, it is very easy to form deposits on the refrigerated surface and scale, which increases the thermal resistance of the surface and affects the refrigeration speed. At present, many chemical production enterprises are due to the scaling problem in the use of tubular condensers, which affects the use effect, thus causing economic losses. So why do tubular condensers scale? Tube condenser is mainly water as its carrier and water as the fluid of condenser. Its nature not only refers to the nature of water itself, but also includes various substances contained in water. Therefore, in the process of condensation, the ions or some salts will crystallize with the change of temperature. These crystals will adhere to the surface of the tube condenser and form scales. At the stage of scales formation, they will be relatively soft. However, with the passage of time and the deterioration of refrigeration effect, the crystallization in scales will begin to lose, the scales will begin to harden, and in the surface. The surface forms a solid hard shell.

在列管冷凝器运行中,流体的流速并不是越快越好,因为当流速增加时,可能会导致結垢的增加,但也会引起沉积物脱卸的速率增加,所以当流速增加时,可能总结垢的速率反而会降低。当处于运行中的列管冷凝器,其流速增加时,不仅冷凝器的系數会变大,而且所带来的磨损也会增大,使能耗增大,所以对于列管冷凝器流体的流速的控制,需要从能耗和污垢两个方面进行综合考虑。

In the operation of tube condenser, the flow rate of fluid is not the faster the better, because when the flow rate increases, it may lead to an increase in scaling, but also increase the rate of sediment removal, so when the flow rate increases, the rate of scaling may be reduced. When the flow rate of the running tube condenser increases, not only the coefficient of the condenser will increase, but also the wear and tear will increase, which will increase the energy consumption. Therefore, the control of the flow rate of the tube condenser fluid needs to be considered comprehensively from the two aspects of energy consumption and fouling.

冷凝器的表面材料对于污垢的形成具有较大的影响。如果表面材料选择不当,则会在污垢形成过程中起到助推的作用。目前冷凝器表面材料可以选择的种类较多,如铜合金,碳钢、不锈钢石星、陶瓷等、这些材料有的对结垢具有抑制作用,同时非金属材料则不易发生结垢,但其导热性能相比于金属材料则要差一些。所以在进行冷凝器表面材料选择时,则需要综合多方面因素进行考虑。另外,冷凝器表面构造上存在着-些微小的凸起,这会导致对吸收能力和化学活性增加,极易导致污垢发生沉积。

The surface material of condenser has great influence on the formation of fouling. If the surface material is not properly selected, it will play a role in promoting the formation of fouling. At present, there are many kinds of surface materials for condenser, such as copper alloy, carbon steel, stainless steel, stone star, ceramics and so on. Some of these materials can inhibit scaling, while non-metallic materials are not easy to scale, but their thermal conductivity is worse than that of metal materials. Therefore, when choosing the surface material of condenser, many factors should be considered comprehensively. In addition, there are some small bumps on the surface structure of the condenser, which will lead to the increase of absorption capacity and chemical activity, and easily lead to fouling deposition.

列管式冷凝器最易结垢的部位为管束的内外壁,当该位置形成污垢层后,则会导致冷凝器制冷能力下降,甚至会导致介质的流道受到阻塞。流体的性质、流速、速度、状态及冷凝器的参数等都会导致污垢的发生。

The most easily scaled part of the tubular condenser is the inner and outer wall of the tube bundle. When the fouling layer is formed at this location, the refrigeration capacity of the condenser will be reduced, and even the flow passage of the medium will be blocked. The fouling will occur because of the nature of the fluid, the velocity, the state and the parameters of the condenser. 

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